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Hormone Testing

Vitamin D Supplementation May be the Easiest Way to Prevent Miscarriage

By | Hormone Testing, Natural Fertility Support, Prevent Miscarriage, Women's Health | No Comments

Prior to 2018, two prospective studies had investigated a weak association between lower vitamin D concentration and pregnancy loss. This 2018 study found a fourfold risk of pregnancy loss with low vitamin D status.

In fact, every one-degree of vitamin D deficiency was found to be associated with a 1% increase in risk of miscarriage.

That’s insane right?

How does vitamin D help?

Miscarriage often results from inadequate development of the growing placenta, a process that requires vitamin D. Vitamin D is needed for angiogenesis, the formation of arteries. Learn about the other common causes of miscarriage.

Vitamin D also prevents preeclampsia later on in pregnancy; a condition causing elevated blood pressure and damage to organ systems like the liver and kidneys. It has also shown to prevent low birth weight and slow fetal growth.

Levels of vitamin D lower than 30 nmol/L (that’s 45 points lower than the minimum requirement) are associated with a fourfold increase in miscarriage rate.

If you live in Canada you most certainly are vitamin D deficient due to our brutal winters and lack of sunshine #wethenorth

But don’t guess. Get tested. We need to know how far below the threshold you are to predict your associated miscarriage risk.

A level of 100+ nmol/L has NO association with pregnancy loss.

Here’s an example of my lab work:

I have a modestly low vitamin D status (in the peak of summer I may add, so I can only imagine how low it was in the dead of winter.) My levels are 7 degrees lower than the minimum required level, which puts me at a 7% risk of miscarriage and a whole host of other symptoms like fatigue, depression, muscle pain, poor immune response, hair loss etc.

A note on supplementing with vitamin D

The brand matters. I have seen patients religiously take vitamin D purchased outside of a health food store or naturopathic clinic and the blood levels just don’t increase. Other naturopathic doctors will share the same experience. Don’t take any old vitamin D, use a reputable brand from your naturopath.  Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin so it must come in an emulsified form (mixed with oil).

Want to learn more about lab tests for preventing miscarriage? Book an appointment with me.

What does AMH (ovarian reserve) have to do with natural fertility success? Not a whole lot.

By | Hormone Testing, Natural Fertility Support | No Comments

Let’s start with what AMH means

AMH stands for “Anti-Mullerian Hormone”, which is a hormone produced by developing follicles (aka eggs). AMH is used as a measure of ovarian reserve, as it is secreted by the follicles in the ovaries. The idea is that the more follicles you have, the higher your AMH value will be and the higher your fertile potential. The more eggs you have, the later you’ll go into menopause. A low value means a low number of eggs remaining, which means less fertile potential. This is all to a reasonable extent because there’s a condition that causes a higher than normal AMH value, and is associated with poor fertility, and that condition is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Read about this hormonal imbalance.

AMH is a hormone test often included in a fertility work-up, and the result can scare the &*%$ out of you. We know we can’t change the number of eggs we are born with, so getting a low AMH result can be devastating. I have yet to test mine personally because I just don’t want to know!

But maybe we don’t need to know at all?

Maybe we don’t need to care about AMH?

Here’s why.

A study of 750 women conducted by the National Institutes of Health in 2017 has revealed that low AMH values do not significantly predict fertility outcome after 1 year of trying to conceive naturally. Here are the findings: after six cycles of attempting to conceive, results did not differ significantly between women with low levels (62% chance of conception) and normal levels of Anti-Mullerian hormone (62% chance). Even after after 12 cycles of trying, the difference in conception between high and low AHM was 82% versus 75%.

That’s pretty awesome news.

Even better news: the women in the study ranged from age 30-44. AMH is strongly correlated with age; in fact the reference ranges can be broken down by age in order to deem what is “normal”:

Age AMH (pmol/L)
< 33 15-48
33-37 12-32
38-40 7-21
41+ 3-18

But what we are learning is that even into your late 30s and early 40s, when AMH seems to be lower, it is NOT a predictor of poor fertility outcomes. Unfortunately, after age 45 it’s a different story, low AMH (and age alone) are certainly associated with negative outcomes.

So what’s the purpose of testing AMH?

AMH is a very useful predictor of IVF success and oocyte yield from stimulating medications. It can be used to determine the most effective dose of injections.

Take it home!

AMH is one lab test, and one tiny piece of the very complicated fertility puzzle. If you’re doing a medicated IVF or IUI cycle, your ovarian reserve matters and so does measuring AMH. If you’re trying to get pregnant naturally, and in the first year of trying, ovarian reserve doesn’t matter so much.

Want to learn more about lab assessments and your fertile potential? Book an appointment.

What Your Semen Analysis Really Means & How to Get the Results You Want

By | Hormone Testing, Natural Fertility Support | No Comments

A Brief History of the Mighty & Motile

The World Health Organization has the very influential job of determining the reference ranges for semen analysis. These reference ranges were overhauled in 2010 from the previous 1999 ranges, which were much higher. There is no doubt that sperm quality has declined over the past 50 years. Some may argue that it’s due to emerging standards of scientific evidence, but in my opinion the strongest evidence is the western lifestyle: poor diet, toxic exposure, xenoestrogens, electromagnetic frequencies, obesity, sedentary habits, the list is endless.

The 2010 standards are based on the semen of fertile men who fathered children within the 12 months preceding the study. The ranges represent the lowest 5th percentile of these men. Meaning:

1) 95% of men should have higher sperm parameters than the reference range

2) Values deemed “normal” are in fact suboptimal for natural conception

The 5 Ws of Semen Analysis

Who: All men wanting to conceive

What: You ejaculate into a cup. It’s not comfortable, but it’s important. You need to abstain from ejaculation 2 days prior to collecting your sample, but you need to have ejaculated at least 5 days before your sample. This is to prevent DNA fragmentation and death of the sperm, if they sit around for too long they actually kill themselves…

When: Your doctor may advise you to try for a year before going for a semen analysis. This doctor says 6 months is enough waiting, especially if you’re over 35 (it’s not just women who age you know!) Once you’ve completed one semen analysis, repeat testing is recommended in two weeks. Semen is ever changing and one snapshot is not enough.

Where: Most likely in a private room at a fertility clinic (bring your own “motivation”), but you may be given the option of home. If you’re obtaining your sample at home you essentially have to sprint like Road Runner to the lab afterwards because the sperm do not survive long outside of body temperature. It’s not recommended.

Why: To determine if you have sperm (in your semen) capable of natural conception, or if they’re going to need a little help getting to their destination.

The Numbers At a Glance

Parameters WHO 2010 Criteria – 5% percentile What if you want sperm that’s 50% better than your friends?
Volume of semen (ml) 1.5 3.7
Concentration of sperm (per 1ml of semen) 15 million 73 million
Progressive motility *forward moving sperm 32% 55%

*normal sperm forms

4% 15%

Other Important Tests For Your Semen

  1. Liquefaction – Your semen should liquefy within 15 minutes so that the sperm can be free to swim
  2. Colour – Semen is grey and opaque. The more translucent it is the less sperm is in it.
  3. pH – Semen has a basic pH of 7-10, this is to help the sperm survive upon ejaculation.
  4. DNA Fragmentation – This is a measure of damaged sperm DNA. A value > 50% is very poor DNA integrity and is linked to poor conception and miscarriage.
  5. Sperm antibodies – These are antibodies the sperm develops against itself. Antibodies affect the sperm’s ability to bind to the egg and for the embryo to develop normally.


Beyond Semen: Tests for Whole Body Health

Sperm health depends on whole body health. Blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, liver health, and weight are all contributing factors to sperm health. Other hormone tests can be run as well.


What do the Numbers Mean?

If you score lower than the 5th percentile, the next step is hormone testing and a referral to a urologist to determine the root cause. The most common causes of low sperm counts include:

  • Retrograde ejaculation – semen enters bladder instead of urethra
  • Hypospadias – opening of urethra on underside of penis
  • Cryptorchidism – undescended testes
  • Absent vas deferens – congenital condition
  • Klinefelter syndrome – extra X chromosome without symptoms
  • Varicocele – testicular swelling and block of blood flow
  • STI – chlamydia, gonorrhea
  • Endocrine dysfunction – hypogonadism
  • Metabolic dysfunction – diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol
  • Lifestyle factors – smoking, alcohol, medications, poor diet, sedentary etc.
  • Age – semen parameters decline around age 35-38

What Are Your More Invasive Treatment Options?

Based on sperm concentration:

  • IUI – between 5 and 10 million/ml
  • IVF – less than 5 million/ml
  • Hormone therapy – less than 5 million/ml
  • TESE (testicular sperm extraction) – undetectable sperm but normal testosterone

What Are Your Less Invasive Treatment Options?

It takes 90 days for sperm to mature. Lifestyle has the potential to change EVERYTHING

Lifestyle: YESSES

  • Ejaculate often – every 3 days to prevent DNA fragmentation. Your semen volume may decrease but your sperm concentration will not
  • Wear protection…when playing sports – injury causes the production of sperm antibodies
  • Brush your teeth – periodontal disease is linked to poor sperm quality
  • Sleep well – melatonin is an essential antioxidant for sperm protection
  • Buy organic & filter your tap water – pesticides and chemicals distrust hormones
  • Use a sperm friendly lubricant, like: Yes Baby, Astroglide TTC, and Pre-Seed
  • Foods to incorporate on a daily basis for sperm production & protection: pumpkin seeds, eggs, olive oil, garlic, POM juice, oats, barley, walnuts, almonds, brazil nuts

Lifestyle: NOT SO MUCH

  • Chemical sunscreens – contain benzophenones, which are harmful to your testes
  • Direct Wi-Fi – the frequencies and heat from your laptop are damaging, turn your laptop into a standing desk
  • Extreme heat- the scrotum likes a breeze! Avoid seat warmers, hot tubs, long stretches of sitting, skinny jeans, tighty-whities, long distance biking etc.
  • Extremely strenuous exercise – don’t decide to compete in an Iron Man or train for your first marathon while trying to conceive
  • Smoking – including marijuana, it impairs sperm count and motility
  • Alcohol – no more than 3 drinks a week
  • Coffee – no more than 200mg daily (that’s 1 small Starbucks/ Tim’s)
  • Processed meats – they’re full of crap, need I say more

Naturopathic Strategies

Book an appointment . As a Naturopathic Doctor, I use herbs, supplements, nutrition, and acupuncture to help you produce more sperm and optimize the sperm you already have.

  • Your sperm needs fuel just like any other cell in your body and sometimes it needs a little supplemental support
  • Your sperm also needs anti-oxidants and vitamins to protect it from damage
  • Herbs and acupuncture can improve your libido and decrease erectile dysfunction
  • Most of all, I can answer all of your questions and support you through the conception process. Simple solutions can make all the difference

Confessions of a Tap Water Drinker: How To Combat Environmental Estrogens Without Losing Your Mind

By | Hormonal Imbalance, Hormone Testing | No Comments

I drink tap water and it is one of the major sources of xenoestrogens in our environment. I don’t have one of those fancy reverse osmosis water filtration systems, but I do have a water pitcher filter that I surely don’t replace often enough. But you know what? I’m doing the best I can, and so are you! Hormones in our environment cause hormonal imbalance within the body.

There are so many things you can do to reduce your chemical load and you don’t have to turn your life upside down to do them. I’m here to tell you that even small changes make a BIG difference when they all add up.


Maybe I’ve gotten ahead of myself and you’ve never heard of these “xenoestrogens” I’m talking about? Xenoestrogens are chemicals we encounter daily that behave like estrogen in our bodies; they interfere with the functions of our hormones.  They’re in our water, our pesticides, our shampoo, our coffee cups, our cans/plastics and the list goes on. Well, they’re seemingly inescapable.

The bad news: When there are more xenoestrogens in our environment, we end up with more estrogen in our bodies.  These xenoestrogens are unfortunately much stronger than the natural estrogens our bodies produce, so you may experience symptoms of excess estrogen, like: breast tenderness, irregular menstrual bleeding, ovarian cysts, fibroids, PCOS, endometriosis, PMS, headaches, excess fat tissue, low libido, etc all due to environmental exposure. Xenoestrogens affect men and women.

The good news: Thankfully, our bodies are brilliant machines that have the amazing ability to remove the majority of these toxic estrogens through liver detoxification and elimination. It is only when we are over-exposed, and our bodies are over-exerted, that we start to feel the symptoms because our elimination pathways just can’t keep up with the chemical load.

There’s more good news.  The purpose of this blog is to teach you how to reduce your load of xenoestrogens so that your body is better equipped at getting rid of them.

Here’s what you can do:

  1. Enjoy foods and drinks that help your body eliminate harmful estrogens, you’re already eating anyways!

The following foods/drinks decrease the binding effects of xenoestrogens in the body:

  •      Almonds
  •      Walnuts
  •      Ground flax
  •      Sunflower seeds
  •      Sesame seeds
  •      Non-GMO, organic soy
  •      Green tea
  •      Hibiscus tea
  •      Alfalfa sprouts

The following foods/drinks increase the elimination of xenoestrogens from the body:

  •      Broccoli
  •      Cauliflower
  •      Brussels sprouts
  •      Cabbage
  •      Collard greens
  •      Arugula
  •      Bok Choy
  •      Kale
  •      Turnips
  1. Know the common sources of xenoestrogens and make small changes to avoid them

  •      Xenoestrogens can be found in a wide variety of household products: cosmetics, cleaning products, body products, cookware etc.The next time you you run out of laundry detergent buy a natural one instead, and skip the unnecessary dryer sheets full of chemicals.
  •      Skin Deep is a site where you can search cosmetics and determine whether they have hazardous chemicals, without having to read a single label!
  •      Avoid plastics as much as possible: use glass containers, use a reusable water bottle, do not heat plastics in the microwave or dishwasher, bring a travel coffee mug to work.
  •      The “dirty dozen” is a list of the top 12 produce with the most pesticides. You do not need to buy everything organic, in fact buying organic in only these 12 foods reduces your pesticide exposure by 60-90%.
  •     Avoid tap water when you can- reverse osmosis water has the fewest toxic compounds (although it is not great for the environment).

Other tips for healthy elimination of estrogens:

  •      Opt for high fiber foods, including: complex carbs, fruits, veggies
  •      Drink at least 2L of water daily to support elimination
  •      Limit alcohol intake to 1-2 glasses of red wine a week for optimal liver function
  •      Get outside in the sun and exercise: vitamin D and sweating both contribute to lower estrogen levels

Even if you only choose to make one tiny change after reading this blog, you’re still better off than you were before. I do the best I can but I don’t treat it like a full time job! I use natural cosmetics, body products, and tampons. I try to use glass containers and avoid heating plastic, but I do love coffee shops and my faithful dishwasher!

Book an appointment with Dr. Sumner. Learn about hormone testing.


Wozniak, M., & Murias, M. (2008). Xenoestrogens: endocrine disrupting compounds. Ginekologia polska79(11), 785-790.

Paterni, I., Granchi, C., & Minutolo, F. (2015). Risks and Benefits Related to Alimentary Exposure to Xenoestrogens. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, (just-accepted), 00-00.

Arya, G., Tadayon, S., Sadighian, J., Jones, J., de Mutsert, K., Huff, T. B., & Foster, G. D. (2017). Pharmaceutical chemicals, steroids and xenoestrogens in water, sediments and fish from the tidal freshwater Potomac River (Virginia, USA). Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 1-11.

Michałowicz, J. (2014). Bisphenol A–sources, toxicity and biotransformation. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology37(2), 738-758.

The Top 10 Hormones Worth Testing in Blood Work & The EXACT Results You Want to See

By | Hormonal Imbalance, Hormone Testing | No Comments

You know the drill when it comes to hormone testing; it’s a lot of poking and prodding on multiple days of your menstrual cycle. In my experience, my patients have had all the right testing done (mostly), but no one has taken the time to sit down with them and explain what the results truly mean.

The biggest pitfall of serum (blood) hormone testing is that the reference ranges are MASSIVE. Which means it is highly unlikely that your results will be deemed “abnormal” even though you know you have a hormonal imbalance. So that’s what this blog is for; I’m going to break it all down for you and discuss what the results mean and the REAL range you’re looking for. Note: the following reference ranges are for women and are Canadian units.


1) Estradiol

What it is: Estradiol, along with LH and FSH, stimulate follicle (egg) maturation. It’s also responsible for female sex characteristics, thickening of the endometrial lining, and bone protection. Estrogen can also be converted from fat, in both males and females, by an enzyme called aromatase.

What it means: Low estradiol is present in peri-menopause and menopause. Elevated estrogen is present in early premature ovarian insufficiency (followed by low levels), and in estrogen dominant conditions like: PMS, endometriosis, PCOS, and obesity.

Reference Range:

Follicular 77-921 pmol/L

Luteal 77-1145 pmol/L

The “real” range: The width of the above ranges is ridiculous! Estradiol should be tested on day 3 and should be lower than 200 pmol/L and higher than 80 pmol/L. A level higher than this is a sign that the body is trying too hard to stimulate egg development, and the ovaries are not responding. In this case, you will likely see elevated FSH too.

2) FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)

What it is: The name says it all. FSH is in charge of the development and maturation of follicles.

What it means: High levels are diagnostic of menopause, ranging from 27-133 IU/L. When your body is pumping out more FSH than normal, it’s a sign that the ovaries are not responding (just like estrogen). Low levels of FSH are typically present in PCOS.

Reference Range:

Follicular 3-8 IU/L

Mid-cycle 3-22 IU/L

Luteal 1.5-5.5 IU/L

The “real” range: Higher than 8 IU/L on day 3 (that’s the 3rd day of your period) is too high and the value is only going up from there. 6 IU/L is as good as it gets on day 3.

3) LH (Luteinizing hormone)

What it is: Ah, the hormone everyone knows and loves! The LH surge triggers ovulation and is measured by urine strips. LH also contributes to the maturation of eggs. You may not know that estrogen surges right before LH, which can also be used to detect ovulation.

What it means: On day 3, an LH to FSH ratio greater than 2:1 is indicative of PCOS. LH is elevated in PCOS for so many reasons I’ll need to dedicate another blog to it. Elevated LH also stimulates elevated testosterone production, and in turn estrogen production. Contrary to what you may think, high LH actually inhibits ovulation instead of stimulating it.

Reference Range:

Follicular 2-12 IU/L

Mid-cycle 8-90 IU/L

Luteal 1-14 IU/L

The “real” range: LH should be almost equivalent to FSH on day 3. 6-8 IU/L is ideal.

4) Progesterone

What it is: Most of the body’s progesterone is produced by the outer coating of the egg, called the corpus luteum. After you ovulate, progesterone levels increase to maintain the endometrial lining and prepare for embryo implantation. Progesterone also stimulates the production of a thick mucous that covers the cervix so no sperm can enter the uterus (FYI this is the basis of hormonal birth control).

What it means: A low level of mid-luteal progesterone indicates anovulation and luteal phase defect (short luteal phase) and predicts implantation failure/ early miscarriage.

Reference Range:

Luteal 4-50 nmol/L

The “real” range: On day 21 the minimum value is 10 nmol/L to have ovulated and 20 nmol/L to carry a pregnancy. Day 21 is arbitrary if you don’t ovulate on day 14. Progesterone is best-tested 7 days after you ovulate.

5) Prolactin

What it is: The main function of prolactin is to stimulate breast milk production. However, elevation can also occur due to the following: benign pituitary tumor, periods of high stress, hypothyroidism, PCOS, and certain medications.

What it means: Elevated prolactin inhibits the release of GnRH, which then inhibits the release of LH and FSH. Without LH and FSH, follicles will not develop.

Reference Range:

5-30 ug/L

The “real” range: Prolactin levels as high as 50 ug/L can inhibit ovulation, but small increases by a few points are relatively harmless. One-time elevation should be followed by repeat testing. As mentioned, stress is a major influence on this hormone.


What it is: A precursor hormone to both estrogen and testosterone.

What it means: DHEA is often evaluated in PCOS, as elevations in this hormone increase androgen levels. It may be prescribed to improve ovarian reserve (but not without fun side-effects).

Reference Range: <9.8 umol/L

7) Androstenodione

What it is: Produced from DHEA, this hormone is the precursor to testosterone.

What it means: Elevated androstenedione is found in PCOS and adrenal hyperplasia. Both conditions inhibit ovulation. It may be elevated in isolation, or with testosterone.

Reference Range:

Follicular 1.2-8.7 nmol/L

Luteal 1.1-8.2 nmol/L

8) Testosterone

What it is: You know this hormone for its role as the primary male sex hormone, but it’s important for women too! In the ovaries, testosterone is produced by the stromal cells and converted to estrogen. It participates in follicle growth and development, not to mention male and female libido.

What it means: Too much is present in PCOS which is far from ideal, but too little can inhibit ovulation and egg development.

Reference Range:

Total testosterone 0.3- 1.8 nmol/L (some labs up to 4 nmol/L)

The “real” range: Testosterone is extremely tricky to test accurately. Free testosterone is a better measurement than total and the reference ranges (depending on the lab) have huge variability. In order to test free testosterone you need to test total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin.

9) AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone)

What it is: It’s a hormone that can depict the female egg reserve because it is secreted by the eggs in the ovaries. The more eggs you have, the higher the value will be. Not surprisingly, AMH decreases with age. This is the only hormone test we have for predicting ovarian reserve.

What it means: A lower value for your age means you have a lower number of eggs than the average female. A much higher value for your age is indicative of PCOS, as the cystic ovaries in PCOS secrete excess AMH.

Reference Range: The numbers are averages based on age:

< 33 = 2.1 ng/mL

33-37 = 1.7 ng/mL

38-40 = 1.1 ng/mL

> 41 = 0.5 ng/mL

The “real” range: At any age, a value > 3.15 – 4.45 ng/mL warrants further testing for PCOS. A value of 6.8-10 ng/mL is diagnostic.

10) TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) & Antibodies (anti-TPO, anti-TG, anti-TSH)

What it is: TSH is released by the anterior pituitary, which then stimulates the release of thyroid hormones (T3, T4) from the thyroid gland. TSH above the reference range with symptoms present is diagnostic of hypothyroidism, and below is hyperthyroidism. TPO and TG antibodies cause the thyroid condition known as Hashimoto’s, anti-TSH is more commonly present in Graves’.

What it means: Deficient thyroid function affects egg quality, embryo quality, and implantation rates. Combine that with thyroid antibodies, and there’s an increased risk of miscarriage.

Reference Range:

TSH 0.32-4.0 mIU/L

Antibodies should all be negative

The “real” range: TSH should be < 2.5 to prevent miscarriage. A full thyroid lab panel (with individual thyroid hormones) is certainly necessary in cases of recurrent miscarriage.

Book an appointment with Dr. Sumner to request & review lab work. Learn about her hormone balancing program


Zadehmodarres S, Heidar Z, Razzaghi Z, Ebrahimi L, Soltanzadeh K, Abed F. Anti-mullerian hormon level and polycystic ovarian syndrome diagnosis. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2015;13(4):227-230.

Wiweko B, Maidarti M, Priangga MD, et al. Anti-mullerian hormone as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for PCOS patients. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. 2014;31(10):1311-1316. doi:10.1007/s10815-014-0300-6.


Huhtinen K, Desai R, Ståhle M, et al. Endometrial and Endometriotic Concentrations of Estrone and Estradiol Are Determined by Local Metabolism Rather than Circulating Levels. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2012;97(11):4228-4235. doi:10.1210/jc.2012-1154.

Kumar P, Sait SF. Luteinizing hormone and its dilemma in ovulation induction. Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences. 2011;4(1):2-7. doi:10.4103/0974-1208.82351.

The Top 5 Benefits of Soy for Women

By | Hormonal Imbalance, Hormone Testing | No Comments

I’ve been wondering for years why everyone seems to hate soy. As a part-time job during naturopathic medical school I used to sample health foods at various grocery stores and customers were so avid that they avoid soy. When I asked them why, they said, “Soy causes cancer”. This is a common misconception about soy. In fact, there’s evidence that soy consumption decreases the risk of many cancers such as endometrial, ovarian, gastrointestinal, breast, and prostate. If that’s not enough, I personally grew up on soy and I’ve turned out okay…so far! In a world full of fast food, microwavable meals, and plastic everything – is an innocent bean really the enemy? Since I’m passionate about female hormones, I hit the books and researched the effects of soy on estrogen and progesterone levels. I hope you’ll be pleased to read what I’ve discovered, and accept that soy isn’t so scary after all! Soy can be incredible for hormonal imbalance.

The components of soy: what’s in a bean?

  • Protein– soy contains the complete spectrum of essential amino acids, which is why it is a staple in a vegetarian diet.
  • Isoflavones– these are the constituents that act like estrogen and are the reason why it’s common to get confused about soy. Another term for isoflavone is phytoestrogen. Isoflavones/phytoestrogens can exert weak estrogenic effects in our bodies. This means they can bind to estrogen receptors in the body and prevent strong/harmful estrogens from binding. This is a good thing! It does not promote cancer, it protects us.
  • Beta-sitosterols– these are constituents that have been proven to lower cholesterol. Soy is recommended by Health Canada as part of a cholesterol lowering diet.
  • Vitamins & Minerals– soy is high in fiber, iron, folate, and B-vitamins. If you’re concerned about the bioavailability of nutrients in beans, opt for sprouted beans.
  • “Fermentability”– I may have made up this word, but I’m using it to explain all of the wonderful foods that have been created by fermenting soy, like: tempeh, miso, and natto! Fermented foods are amazing for gut health, lowering inflammation, and benefiting mood.

The Top 5 Benefits of Soy for Women

  1. Soy isoflavones bind to estrogen receptors and promote the urinary excretion of estrogen in estrogen dependent conditions like endometriosis and fibroids. With increased amounts of soy consumption, severity of endometriosis can decline and women can experience fewer symptoms.
  2. In menopausal women with low estrogen levels, soy consumption can improve serum estradiol levels and reduce hot flashes and symptoms of declining estrogen.
  3. In women undergoing IVF, those with higher soy consumption had increased fertilization rates. Women who consumed soy, compared to women who did not, had a 6% greater chance of fertilization.
  4. Not only can soy improve fertilization, but also pregnancy and live birth rates. In women who consume soy, there’s an 11-13% greater chance of pregnancy and birth rate compared to women who don’t eat soy.
  5. Soy increases a protein called sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG). This protein binds estrogen and testosterone in the blood. If these hormones are bound then they are inactive, a greater ratio of bound hormone to free hormone can lower symptoms of androgen excess, like: acne, hair loss, and male pattern hair growth, as well as estrogen excess, like: breast tenderness, painful periods, and heavy periods.

What about men consuming soy? Here’s where it gets less obvious

There is a lot of conflicting research on the effects of soy consumption in men. For example, one human study showed that soy consumption lowers sperm concentration, and another showed that soy has no effect on any semen parameters. Soy has the potential to decrease testosterone levels in men who already have hypogonadism (low testosterone). It may exert estrogenic effects in men but the research is varied. However, it is undisputed that soy has great cardiovascular benefits and can lower cholesterol levels. It may also present a preventive role against prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). If you’re male and you’re not trying to conceive, the benefits of soy likely outweigh the potential risks. It is ideal for man to eat a variety of plant and animal sources of protein; soy can be included in this daily diet.

The Bottom Line:

  • Opt for non-GMO, organic, and sugar free soy products
  • WOMEN: aim for 7-28mg of isoflavones daily (one cup of soy milk has about 6mg, 3 ounces of tofu has 20mg
  • MEN: when not trying to conceive, aim to consume about 3 servings of soy a week
  • If you’re concerned about your hormone levels, you can opt for hormone testing

Book an appointment with Dr. Sumner


Die, M. D., Bone, K. M., Williams, S. G., & Pirotta, M. V. (2014). Soy and soy isoflavones in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials. BJU international, 113(5b), E119-E130.

Chavarro, J. E., Toth, T. L., Sadio, S. M., & Hauser, R. (2008). Soy food and isoflavone intake in relation to semen quality parameters among men from an infertility clinic. Human reproduction, 23(11), 2584-2590.

Vanegas, J. C., Afeiche, M. C., Gaskins, A. J., Mínguez-Alarcón, L., Williams, P. L., Wright, D. L., … & Chavarro, J. E. (2015). Soy food intake and treatment outcomes of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology. Fertility and sterility, 103(3), 749-755.

Tsuchiya, M., Miura, T., Hanaoka, T., Iwasaki, M., Sasaki, H., Tanaka, T., … & Tsugane, S. (2007). Effect of soy isoflavones on endometriosis: interaction with estrogen receptor 2 gene polymorphism. Epidemiology, 18(3), 402-408.

Saeidnia, S., Manayi, A., Gohari, A. R., & Abdollahi, M. (2014). The Story of Beta-sitosterol-A Review.

Messina, M. (2010). Soybean isoflavone exposure does not have feminizing effects on men: a critical examination of the clinical evidence. Fertility and sterility, 93(7), 2095-2104.

Chen, M., Rao, Y., Zheng, Y., Wei, S., Li, Y., Guo, T., & Yin, P. (2014). Association between soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk for pre-and post-menopausal women: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. PloS one, 9(2), e89288.

The Ins & Outs of the DUTCH (dried urine test for comprehensive hormones)

By | Hormonal Imbalance, Hormone Testing | No Comments

Over the past 4 years I have committed myself to learning all about dried urine hormone testing (aka DUTCH). I have run countless tests on patients, and myself, and have found it to be the single most useful hormone assessment.

In this blog I break down MY results to give you an example of how the DUTCH can be interpreted.

The purpose of all hormone testing is to give you more information than you already have. If having more information is not going to change the diagnosis, or your doctor’s treatment plan, then lab testing is unnecessary.  If you want to know more about individual hormonal pathways or have symptoms of hormonal imbalance, then hormone testing is for you! Keep in mind that the person is always more important than the numbers; naturopathic doctors always practice individualized medicine.

So what’s the DUTCH test and how is it completed?

DUTCH stands for dried urine test for comprehensive hormones. The test measures steroid hormones excreted in your urine (I will just be talking abut sex hormones in this blog).

In Canada, a naturopathic doctor can requisition this test for you from several different private lab companies. It’s a very simple test to perform. I used Rocky Mountain Analytical:

  • “Collection day” is 6-7 days before your expected menses- e.g. if you have a 28 day cycle you will be collecting urine on days 21-22 of your cycle
  • You’re given 4 sheets of laboratory paper for your samples
  • You are instructed to pee on the paper at 4 different times: once around dinner time, once before bed, once when you wake up, and once 2 hours after waking (I brought my pee paper with me to work, it’s the only way if your collection days don’t land on a weekend!)
  • You will be given specific instructions on how much water to drink as to not dilute the urine
  • You will fill out demographic information and answer questions about your menstrual cycle and corresponding symptoms
  • Then pack up all of the materials and send it to your lab and you’ll have the results within 3 weeks

How does the DUTCH test work?

Sex hormones exist in our bodies in many different forms. Inactive hormones are bound to proteins in the blood; active hormones are free in the blood. Hormone testing via blood measures both free and bound hormones. Urine testing measures free hormones. These free hormones are found in the urine as precursor hormones like estrone and estradiol, or in the form of free metabolites like 2-OH-E1. Estrogens for example, exist in their original forms: estradiol, estrone, and estriol, but they can also interconvert between their original forms or be converted by the liver into metabolites. I will discuss metabolite formation in detail, as it is one of the main “claims to fame” of the DUTCH test!

You may be wondering, well how do our hormones get into our urine?! And the answer is through liver processing!

In order for sex hormones to be excreted, they have to be processed by the liver. The liver is our main organ of detoxification, the goal of the liver is to take your hormones and make them more water-soluble so your body can excrete them in urine (and stool).

There are two phases to liver processing of hormones: aptly named phase 1 and phase 2:

Phase 1 takes your hormones and makes them more potent. It is during this phase that hormone metabolites are made through a process called hydroxylation. These metabolites can exert negative and positive effects in the body.

Phase 2 takes your hormones and tries really hard to get rid of them through a process called conjugation. Think of conjugation as tagging your hormones with a sticker that says “I don’t want this anymore”. Once hormones are conjugated they are ready to be excrete by your body. The hormones that are found in urine are conjugated with a sulfate or glucuronide group (now we’re getting fancy). After you’ve sent you urine samples to the lab, the lab has to break the conjugation bonds in order to measure your hormone levels.

Urine hormone testing measures free hormone levels only, because bound hormones are not metabolically active and thus are not broken down by the liver. Urine hormone testing allows you to get a picture of the active hormones in your body, not the bound and inactive hormones.

Oh but there’s more to hormone excretion- it’s called enterohepatic circulation!

After the liver detoxifies your hormones, the majority are excreted in the urine (and a small amount in the stool). However, pesky hormones can be reabsorbed by the gut before they make it to the urine through a process called enterohepatic recirculation. This is your body’s unfortunate way of storing hormones for later. If you don’t have a high fiber diet and lack healthy gut bacteria you are more prone to this recirculation. We don’t want this to happen, and measuring hormones in dried urine can help you measure this process! I’ll explain how as we go.

Now that we have a better understanding of how the DUTCH test works, I’ll explain the exciting part of INTERPRETING THE RESULTS!

Remember how I mentioned that the DUTCH test measures both “precursor” hormone levels and hormone metabolite levels? This is where interpretation gets interesting!

Here are the top 4 benefits of DUTCH testing:

  1. The DUTCH can demonstrate whether your body is efficient at turning “mother” hormones into “daughter” hormones

For example, androstenedione is a mother hormone that makes testosterone but it also makes androsterone, eticholanolone, and estrone. Elevation in androstenedione can be found in PCOS and can cause symptoms of acne and male pattern hair growth.

This is a photo from my personal DUTCH test. You will see that of the three “daughters” of androstenedione, the lowest daughter is testosterone and the highest daughter is androsterone. This is okay news for me. It shows that my body is converting androstenedione into androsterone instead of testosterone, which is an extremely weak androgen. (I owe this ability to certain enzymes I will save for another blog). This explains why I don’t have symptoms of hyperandrogenism, even though my androstenedione metabolites are extremely high! Sure serum blood tests measure androstenedione and testosterone, but they typically don’t measure androsterone…which turned out to be crucial information for me.

  1. The DUTCH measures estrogen metabolites, and certain metabolites are more harmful than others.

As I mentioned earlier, estrogen has many potential metabolites. The DUTCH test measures three estrogen metabolites: 16-OH-E1, 4-OH-E1, and 2-OH-E1.

2-OH-E1 is considered the healthiest and most protective form of estrogen. 16-OH-E1 and 4-OH-E1 are more potent and harmful and have been indicated in cancer risk. Here is the breakdown of my estrogen metabolites:

My production of 16-OH-E1 is low, which is good, however I’m not making much of the protective 2-OH-E1 estrogen either. Having this information is extremely valuable, because naturopathic medicine has the potential to alter the metabolism of estrogen in a more favourable way and preferentially metabolize estrogen into the protective and healthy 2-OH-E1. Both 2-OH-E1 and 4-OH-E1 can be methylated by an enzyme called COMT, and naturopathic medicine can support the function of specific enzymes! Pretty awesome!

  1. Speaking of methylation, the DUTCH measures the function of the COMT enzyme

    It measures the amount of methylated 2-OH-E1 in your urine. You want this enzyme in tip top shape to prevent DNA damage. Here’s my result: given the small amount of 2-OH-E1 I make, my body is doing a pretty good job with methylation.

  1. Can the DUTCH measure whether or not my body is adequately excreting hormones, and not just reabsorbing them in the gut?

    Remember that the DUTCH test is based on the urinary excretion of hormones, so you may be wondering “what if my body isn’t excreting the hormones properly, does that mean my hormone levels will look deceptively low?!?!” I’ve wondered the same thing!

The three estrogen metabolites all come from a form of estrogen called estrone, except for 16-OH-E1, which is produced from a number of reactions! Below you will find my estrone level. Next to the photo of estrone, are my metabolites. Now look at where all of the green arrows are pointing. My estrone level is midrange, however my metabolites are all low range. The makers of the DUTCH would like to see the arrows of the metabolites all pointing in the same direction as their precursors- meaning they are all in the same range. This is not to say that the metabolites should directly equal their precursors, hormone production is much more complicated than that! Given this information, my results indicate that I have high circulating levels of metabolites and I am not excreting efficiently. I need to prevent recirculation of hormones in my gut.

Holy smokes?!?! I know that’s a lot of information to take in!

The Benefits of DUTCH:

It can easily be performed at home. The interpretation gives us information on metabolic pathways and enzyme function. It also gives as a greater picture of active hormones levels, compared to bound and inactive hormones in serum. It can also provide us with insight on hormone elimination and recirculation. There isn’t another hormone test out there that can do ALL THAT!

Want your results interpreted?

Want to order the DUTCH test? Book an appointment with Dr. Sumner. Already have your results and want them interpreted? There’s an appointment for that too! Book a lab work consultation appointment.


Tsuchiya, Y., Nakajima, M., & Yokoi, T. (2005). Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of estrogens and its regulation in human. Cancer letters227(2), 115-124.

  1. Whirl-Carrillo, E.M. McDonagh, J. M. Hebert, L. Gong, K. Sangkuhl, C.F. Thorn, R.B. Altman and T.E. Klein. “Pharmacogenomics Knowledge for Personalized Medicine” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2012) 92(4): 414-417.

Im A, Vogel VG, Ahrendt G, et al. Urinary estrogen metabolites in women at high risk for breast cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30(9):1532-1535. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgp139.

Sanderson, J. T. (2006). The steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway as a target for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Toxicological sciences94(1), 3-21.

Pills & Periods: Everything You Want to Know in One Blog

By | Hormonal Imbalance, Hormone Testing, Women's Health | No Comments

This blog is to help you navigate the world of periods and birth control, so instead of the debilitating fear we have associated with a little mishap, or a late period….you’ll know exactly what’s going on in your body. Be empowered, knowledgeable, and in control! Periods are annoying, hormonal imbalance sucks, but I can help you navigate the physiology. Buckle in ladies!

In order to explain how birth control works, we first need to start with periods. You may also want to do some hormone testing if you have any concerns about what is happening in your body.

How Periods Work: Intro to Hormones

All you need to know is that all of your reproductive hormones are under the control of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). GnRH is released by the hypothalamus in the brain. GnRH controls:

  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) – makes those eggs mature
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH) – makes the ovary ovulate the egg
  • And indirectly: Estrogen and Progesterone – does everything else

The 3 Phases

 Follicular Phase & Estrogen (about 14 days)

The follicular phase occurs when your ovaries are working on maturing the “eggs” (aka oocytes or follicles). This happens under the influence of 3 main hormones: estrogen, FSH, and LH. It’s a competition of the fittest. Typically, only one follicle is released by one of your ovaries (you have two of course). When estrogen reaches it’s peak and then falls, you subsequently develop what’s called an “LH surge” this makes one of your ovaries release a follicle and you have officially ovulated! Some girls experience ovulatory pain called mittelschmerz and they can feel which side they ovulated from! Pretty cool eh! When you’re using ovulation strips to plan for pregnancy, it is LH that is detected in the urine. This follicle maturation process takes about 14 days.

While all of this is happening, under the power of the estrogen I mentioned earlier, your uterus is developing a thick lining called the endometrium. We’ll hear more about this later.

Luteal Phase & Progesterone (about another 14 days)

Once you have ovulated, you’re now in the luteal phase. This phase is mostly under the influence of progesterone. The little follicle that was released from the ovary travels into the fallopian tube and waits to be fertilized by a little, mighty sperm. If you’re actively avoiding pregnancy, the follicle is not fertilized and it dies. The follicle only lives for 12-24 hours after ovulation. That’s not very long at all! The mighty sperm however, can live up to 5 days in the uterus waiting for the perfect follicle to fertilize. This means, there’s a chance you can get pregnant 4 days before you ovulate and the day you ovulate. That’s a very narrow window ladies! That is not to say that accidents don’t happen and result in unplanned pregnancies, but I am saying that you DO NOT need to live in fear every day of the month waiting anxiously for your period. If you know your unique body and keep track of when you ovulate then you hold the power!

Now, where was I? When this follicle was released from the ovary it left its fashionable yellow coat behind. This outer coat layer is called the corpus luteum (aka yellow body) and it secretes progesterone! How amazing is that?! Remember that thick lining we were talking about earlier? It is progesterone’s job to make it grow nice and thick so the follicle you released has a comfy spot to live once it has been fertilized. It is also progesterone’s job to keep other sperm away from the uterus after you have ovulated. No tardy sperm allowed! Progesterone blocks late sperm by creating a really thick mucous plug that covers the cervix, which is the opening to the uterus from the vagina.

The corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone, only survives for about 14 days. If the follicle is fertilized, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is created. This is the hormone detected by a pregnancy test. If hCG is present, it tells the corpus luteum to stick around and keep making progesterone to support the endometrial lining. If the follicle is not fertilized, there is no positive feedback to the corpus luteum and it dies. Now there is no more progesterone. It is this progesterone withdrawal that causes bleeding.

Menses (who knows how long this lasts!)

Phew, we made it, what a relief! Now that there’s no progesterone to support the endometrial lining, your body gets rid of the “functional layer” and you have what we loving call a “period”. The length and symptoms of your period depend on ALLLLLL of the hormonal influences in the follicular and luteal phase and vary significantly from girl to girl!

Okay finally the fun stuff: How does birth control work?

The Pill e.g. Alesse

  • These pills are called “combination pills” because they contain 2 hormones: synthetic estrogen and synthetic progestin
  • These synthetic hormones suppress your body’s natural production of FSH and LH so that you do not ovulate. They essentially trick your hypothalamus and GnRH into thinking that your body has already ovulated so that you don’t!
  • Remember how progesterone created a thick mucous preventing sperm from entering the uterus? If you have synthetic progestin in your body at all times you always have this mucus plug, the progestin also changes the endometrial lining so it’s not thick and comfy for a fertilized follicle

The “pill” is 97-99% effective when used correctly

Patches and Rings

  • The Nuva Ring, which is vaginally inserted, and Evra patch, which you put on your skin, both work exactly the same way as an oral contraceptive pill

Hormonal IUD e.g. Mirena

  • The hormonal IUD only contains synthetic progestin. It creates those same mucous changes as the pill and may prevent ovulation.
  • Since it is directly in the uterus, it interferes with the mobility of the follicle and sperm, it produces “hostile” inflammatory prostaglandins, and it affects the enzymes in the endometrium preventing the fertilized follicle from implanting.

The hormonal IUD is 99% effective when used correctly

Copper IUD e.g. Nova-T

  • It is also placed directly in the uterus but does not secrete any hormones at all. It owes its effects to the copper
  • Like the hormonal IUD, it prevents mobility of the follicle and sperm by creating “hostile” inflammatory prostaglandins. It also affects the enzymes in the endometrium preventing the fertilized follicle from implanting.

The copper IUD is 98% effective when used correctly

And there we have it!

Now you have all the knowledge you need to understand what’s going on in your body and I hope this info alleviates the anxiety associated with…..well, not knowing.

Book an appointment with Dr. Sumner